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Here’s how they arrived at that conclusion: Cancer is driven by stem cells — cells which have the ability to self-renew. Necessary cell renewal keeps us healthy, while unchecked stem cell growth becomes cancer. The number of times healthy stem cells divide in a lifetime is a known fact for a number of different organs in the body. When the scientists compared the number of stem cell divisions to the rate of cancer for those organs, they found that the more times the stem cells divided, the greater the cancer rate. In other words, cells that divide more frequently have a greater chance of a DNA coding error that can lead to cancer.
The results of this human study reinforce two important truths for me as a veterinary oncologist. The first truth helps me remove some of the guilt pet families suffer when their pets are diagnosed with cancer. Now, for many families, I can assure them their pets' diseases are likely caused by events over which they have no control. They did not feed their pets the wrong food, or exercise it too much or too little, or unknowingly expose it to cancer-causing pesticides. Once pet families can get past blaming themselves for their pets' tumors, we can get to work trying to make their pets better.
The second truth I found in the Science article is the importance of cancer screening for pets. Because the random genetic events leading to cancer cannot be predicted, pet families must do all they can to limit environmental exposure to cancer promoters, and they must work with their veterinarians to detect cancer early. Pet families should familiarize themselves with the common signs of cancer in pets and report them to their veterinarians immediately.
So, just to point out a few proactive things you can do, if you identify a lump and your veterinarian suggests testing the lump, don’t delay! A “watched” lump almost never gets smaller. Since light-coated dogs and cats are at risk of developing sun-induced cancers, sunbathing should be off their list of activities in an effort to help prevent squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Talk with your veterinarian about the benefits of spaying your female puppy, and keep your cats indoors to help prevent exposure to the feline leukemia virus and the feline immunodeficiency virus to decrease their cancer risk.
As a practicing veterinarian, I need my veterinary scientist colleagues who conduct research to discover better methods of early cancer detection and treatment for both dogs and cats. With watchful pet families and veterinarians armed with good detection and treatment options, we can overcome cancer’s random actions.
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