2001-Mon Jan 16 21:52:48 EST 2017
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Most of us aren't crazy about insects. They're creepy and crawly, and we usually only think about them when they're bugging us. But while we're not paying attention, they're doing lots of work to keep our natural world functioning. Read on, and you'll learn about some insects, both familiar and unfamiliar, that are surprisingly important.
Many insects work hard at pollinating our plants. The honeybee may get all the publicity, but in some cases, other insects do an even better job.
There are flies that pollinate apples, peppers, mangoes and cashews. Many beetles are also important pollinators. And there's one major crop that's pollinated by tiny midges — one that many of us might find particularly important: cacao. The cocoa beans from inside the pods of these trees are refined into chocolate.
Although honeybees are significant because of the wide variety of foodstuffs they pollinate, other pollinators are important because they're specially adapted to specific plants. In fact, the honeybee, which is an introduced species (non-native to North America), isn't as good at pollinating native North American plants as the species of bee that evolved along with them. Tomatoes, for instance, only release their pollen if the flowers are vibrated in a certain way. Honeybees don't know how to do this, but native bees do.
And what about plants that bloom at night when bees are asleep? Flowers like the evening primrose and night-blooming jasmine rely on moths. In fact, one of our native moths is another of those highly specialized pollinators: The yucca plant relies on the yucca moth for its survival. These plants are so specifically adapted that there's more than one species of yucca, each with its own species of pollinating moth.
The female yucca moth has specially evolved mouthparts that allow her to gather pollen from a yucca flower, form it into a ball and stuff it into the center of another yucca flower. If no insect knew how to do this, the yucca wouldn't develop seeds and wouldn't be able to reproduce.
Without insects, the world would be knee-deep in all kinds of refuse. Lots of stuff that you might think just rots away is actually cleaned up by insects.
You've probably heard of dung beetles — you know, those huge bugs in Africa that roll elephant dung into balls. But you might not know that we have them here, too. "We've got dozens of species of dung beetles right here in Maryland that are out working busily every day," says Michael J. Raupp, Ph.D., professor of entomology at the University of Maryland and Bug of the Week blogger.
They're not huge like the African ones — after all, without elephants and rhinos, we don't have such enormous piles of dung to deal with. But perhaps surprisingly for a creature that finds poop tasty and a comfy place to raise a family, some of these beetles are quite beautiful. And they certainly make the world more beautiful.
There are also insects that are crucial for getting rid of dead wood, a job that microbes can't do alone. Bess beetles have strong jaws to gnaw through wood and can digest it into droppings that they feed to their young. They'll only use wood that has started to decay, so they're no danger to your house.
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