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Our pets might not smile, but they do need dental care. What starts with a little tartar buildup and bad breath, if left untreated, can progress to tooth loss because of periodontal disease. Additionally, the bacteria associated with the disease can travel to other parts of the body and cause damage there. Daily brushing, regular dental cleanings, and special rinses and foods are your best line of defense against periodontal disease in cats.
Periodontal disease is defined as the progressive inflammation of the supporting structures surrounding the teeth. It happens when inflammation of the gums (called gingivitis) conspires with inflammation of the bone and tooth support structures (called periodontitis) to undermine a tooth’s support system. This is by far the most common cause of tooth loss among cats.
It is incredibly widespread. Indeed, more than 85 percent of cats over 4 years old are affected to some degree by periodontal disease. Here’s how it happens:
Bacteria associated with dental disease can travel in the bloodstream to infect the heart, kidneys, and liver, which is why periodontal disease, though seemingly localized to the mouth, can have widespread effects. In fact, among humans, periodontal disease has been correlated with shorter life spans. There’s evidence that this association may also be applicable to cats, dogs, and other animals.
The signs of periodontal disease include:
Veterinarians can observe signs of gingivitis and tartar buildup by examining a cat’s mouth. However, since most periodontal disease occurs under the gums, the only way to truly assess the degree of periodontal disease is to perform an examination under anesthesia. Once the cat is anesthetized, a dental probe is used to measure loss of attachment around each tooth. Dental radiographs (X-rays) are indispensable in assessing bone loss, the presence of abscesses, and identifying other potential problems.
All breeds of cats are susceptible to periodontal disease. Some purebreds, however, do appear to be particularly predisposed. Abyssinian cats are most notoriously affected.
Treatment depends on the severity of the disease. If a cat has mild periodontal disease (consisting of gingivitis without any bone loss), a thorough dental cleaning that includes the area under the gum (always followed by dental polishing) can help reverse the problem.
If there’s been loss of the supporting structures around the teeth, however, this process can’t be reversed as long as the tooth remains. Veterinarians may need to perform dental procedures to slow or resolve the process. This can involve one or more of the following techniques (among others):
Luckily, this is one disease that can be managed with plenty of preventative approaches:
Daily brushing can help remove plaque before it turns into tartar. A child-size toothbrush, gauze sponge, or finger brush are the most common tools. Human toothpastes should be avoided because most contain substances that pets shouldn’t swallow in significant quantities. Pet toothpaste is available in flavors such as chicken, seafood, and malt.
Mouth rinse solutions that target plaque bacteria and help promote healthier teeth and gums are available.
There are several dental diets and treats that can also help keep plaque and tartar to a minimum. These diets tend to have larger or irregular kibbles to provide abrasive action against the tooth surface when chewed, or they may include ingredients to prevent tartar mineralization.
Routine prophylactic dentistry is recommended for all cats. Depending on the severity of the problem, some cats may require a dental cleaning and exam as frequently as every four months. This procedure is perhaps the most significant mode of prevention, as it allows veterinarians to thoroughly examine each individual tooth and prevent further deterioration.
Many pet owners worry about the risk of frequent anesthetic procedures in their pets. To be sure, it is not an issue to be taken lightly. Thankfully, modern veterinary medicine has made great strides in minimizing adverse anesthetic events with sophisticated anesthetics, equipment and patient monitoring protocols.
So-called “anesthesia-free” dental cleanings (sometimes offered by grooming facilities) are not recommended by veterinarians, as this kind of cleaning is considered cosmetic only. These procedures cannot effectively clean below the gum line or polish teeth surfaces, and only a veterinarian is trained to assess periodontal disease.
This article has been reviewed by a Veterinarian.
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