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Diet plays a critical role in the management of feline diabetes. In fact, with the right diet and medication, it is highly likely that cats newly diagnosed with diabetes will achieve diabetic remission — meaning they will become non-diabetic and no longer require insulin therapy. This is most common within the first four to six months after diagnosis and institution of appropriate diet and insulin therapy.
Cats are true obligate carnivores and as such have a very high protein requirement and an almost nonexistent carbohydrate requirement.
Cats are designed to consume foods that are high in protein, moderate in fat and very low in carbohydrates. The following composition is ideal:
When referring to commercial cat food, this ideal composition will only be found in canned cat food formulas. Most dry foods are not low enough in carbohydrates. Additionally, dry foods usually contain plant-based protein and are too low in overall protein to satisfy a cat’s high protein requirement. Therefore, dry foods are not generally recommended for diabetic cats. It is well established that the ideal feline diet — especially to achieve diabetic remission — is a canned high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet.
A low-carbohydrate diet is one that provides less than 10 percent of the total calories as carbohydrates.
Some cats will have adequate control of their diabetes on higher-carbohydrate diets, while others may require further restriction to 5 percent of the calories as carbohydrates. In general, the lower the carbs the better for excellent diabetic regulation.
Unfortunately, carbohydrate information is not readily available on cat food packaging. The guaranteed analysis on most packaging contains very limited information, most of which is unhelpful to cat owners. Cat owners can contact pet food companies for more detailed information on the carbohydrate content of available diets. It is important to request the carbohydrates be expressed as a percent of metabolizable energy (percent ME). This gives you the actual percent of calories coming from carbohydrates. It is best to select a food with less than 10 percent of calories (10 percent ME) coming from carbohydrates.
Many veterinarians recommend prescription diabetic foods. Although many cats do well on these foods, some of these foods are formulated with more than the recommended 10 percent ME carbohydrates and may not be ideal in every situation nor the best diet to achieve diabetic remission. Additionally, some clients cannot afford the extra monthly financial commitment that comes with a prescription diet.
The good news is that prescription diets are not necessary to successfully regulate a diabetic cat. Many high-quality commercial cat foods are made with less than 10 percent ME carbohydrates and are appropriate for diabetic management. You must work with your vet to determine your cat’s best dietary solution.
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